A+ 1002 Study Guide

A plus 1002 Sub-objective 4.5 – Dumps4shared

A plus 1002 Sub-objective 4.5

A plus 1002 Sub-objective 4.5 – Explain environmental impacts and appropriate controls.

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Welcome to ExamNotes by Dumps4shared! In Objective 4.5 Explain environmental impacts and appropriate controls, we will look at ways we can control the negative impact of the materials we handle on the environment and ourselves.

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documentation for handling and disposal

The Hazard Communication Standard (HCS) requires chemical
manufacturers, distributors, and importers to provide Safety Data Sheets (SDSs),
formerly known as Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs), in order to communicate
the hazards of dangerous chemical products. The Occupational Safety and Health
Administration (OSHA) require that the employer maintain an MSDS or SDS for every
material that poses a risk to personal health or the environment. Data sheets
are to be kept in a location where they are accessible by the employees. If there
are any questions about the use or disposal of any materials, ask for the specific

humidity level awareness and proper ventilation

Computers are sensitive to high levels of heat and will operate
unpredictably in extreme cases. Provide proper ventilation to computer components
in order to avoid heat buildup. Also, be aware of the humidity levels. Low
humidity prevents the free flow of static electricity. When static electricity
builds up, ESD is much more likely to occur.

Power surges,
brownouts, blackouts

Computers rely on a consistent reliable voltage level in order to
operate properly. If the flow of electricity is interrupted or if the voltage
fluctuates, the equipment will fail. A power surge is a brief overvoltage
condition, called a voltage spike, that can do damage to a system. A brownout
is a brief undervoltage condition that will cause equipment failures. A
blackout is an absence of electrical energy.

Battery backup

A battery backup can provide a consistent, reliable power
supply. By running from a battery supply that is constantly being charged, equipment
is able to run from a clean stable power source.

UPSs are rated by wattage and Volt-amps. When selecting a UPS,
it is best to calculate the anticipated load and choose a power supply that is
rated approximately 40% higher, e.g. a 600W would require a 1000W UPS. This
extra headroom will provide longer runtime in the event of a power failure and
will not overly tax the unit. UPSs provide protection against surges,
brownouts, and blackouts.

UPS-Battery Backup


A surge suppressor provides protection against voltage spikes.
When the surge suppressor senses voltage higher than its rating, the surge
suppressor trips an internal breaker which cuts power to its outlets. Once a
surge suppressor has been triggered, it needs to be replaced. If the surge suppressor
has an indicator light, the light will flicker. Also, many surge suppressors contain
phone jacks and if they are available, use them. Electricity can use any
physical connection to enter your system. Phones and modems are not capable of
handling high voltage. In our example below, observe that this unit has
indicators for Line, Fault, and Protection.

Surge suppressor

Protection from
airborne particles

Airborne particulate matter is a health hazard but just as
dangerous, can build up inside equipment, clogging fans and increasing the
possibility of overheating. Machines operating in an environment where these
contaminants are present should use specially designed protection. Similarly, people
operating those machines need personal protection. Shown below is an
unprotected CPU heatsink after years of unprotected operation. As you can
imagine, this CPU was overheating.

CPU Heatsink Clogged with Dust


PCs need to be protected from environmental hazards. Equipment
operating in an environment where airborne dust, or other fine suspended
particles, is present requires additional protection. Shown below is a look at
a well-sealed dust-proof PC enclosure. This enclosure will not permit air to
enter anywhere except the specified air intakes at the fans and vents. These
openings will have filters that should be monitored for buildup of debris.

PC dust proof enclosure

Since most PCs use one or more fans in order to draw outside air
into the system for cooling, blocked filters result in obstructed airflow which
can lead to overheating. As a result, it is important to recognize exactly what
is contained in the cooling air. The power supply cooling fans draw these
contaminants through the vents into the enclosure where they can build up. This
buildup causes the internal components to be covered in a buildup of fine
debris, thereby reducing the ability to conduct heat away from sensitive

The solution, aside from regular vacuuming, is a specially
designed enclosure. These enclosures use air filters on the intakes and fans to
forcibly create positive airflow to the unit in order to provide clean air to
the system. Ideally, the intake for the enclosure would draw air from outside
the contaminated area in order to keep the filters from premature clogging.


As mentioned above, air filters will prevent contaminants from
entering the device and reducing the buildup of debris on fans, capacitors, and
heatsinks which are designed to dissipate heat. An air filter mask is the first
line of personal protection for airborne contaminants. Make sure there is a
good seal around the whole mask. Otherwise, leaks will be evident after a
period of exposure due to streaks of debris on the wearer’s face. Double check
the seal.

Air Filter Mask

Dust and debris

As noted above, dust and debris will decrease the internal
device components’ ability to conduct heat out of the system. These
contaminants will also lead to premature wear and failure of moving parts such
as fans and optical media readers/writers.

Very dusty computer

Compressed air

There are two main solutions to the dust and debris problem. The
first is compressed air.

Compressed air is great for the relocation of contaminants, the
keyword here being relocation. Since compressed air does not remove the
contaminants and only blows them off of the components, exercise care in order
to not fill the workspace with the contaminant material. Use compressed air
outside the building where the dust can be dissipated into the atmosphere. You
won’t make any friends by blowing out a dusty PC in your workspace.



The second solution is a vacuum. A good anti-static vacuum is
the best method for cleaning out a dusty PC. Vacuums will clean out and hold any
contaminants, preventing any secondary contamination of nearby parts and people. Be
absolutely sure that the vacuum is rated as anti-static as there should be no
metal parts or attachments that can damage the sensitive internal components. Shown
below is an approved Anti-Static Vacuum.

Anti-Static Vacuum

Compliance to
local government regulations

As noted earlier , there are a myriad of
regulations governing safe operating practices in the workspace. Federal
Regulations published by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration
(OSHA) mandates standards for procedures and material handling. OSHA is
responsible for the protection of workers exposed to any number of hazards. In
our case, the Control of Hazardous Energy (Lockout/Tagout) includes the
practices and procedures for disabling equipment that will present a shock
hazard. Do pay attention. Also, there should be an MSDS on file for any hazmat material
you might come in contact with.

Failing to observe the electrical standards can result in immediate harm to yourself or coworkers. Hazardous materials can cause immediate harm in some cases and there may also be long-term effects that may not be recognized right away but could lead to life-threatening conditions such as liver or kidney damage and ultimately cancer.

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That covers objective 4.5! You’re getting closer to the end. 4.6 is next. Good luck on the test!

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