Categories
A+ 1001 Study Guide

A plus 220-1001 – Exam Objective 3.11 – Dumps4shared

A plus 220-1001 – Exam Objective 3.11

A+ Exam Objective 3.11

Click here if you want to go back to the A+ 220-1001 Table of Content

3.11 Given a scenario, install and maintain various print technologies.

Click here for our A+ Exam Simulator for exams 220-1001 & 220-1002

Welcome to Exam Notes by Dumps4shared! In this article, we
will cover Core 1 objective 3.11 Given a scenario, install and maintain various
print technologies.

> Laser
 Replace toner, apply maintenance kit, perform
calibration, clean.

> Thermal
 Replace paper, clean heating element,
remove debris.

> Impact
 Replace ribbon, replace print head,
replace paper.

> Inkjet
 Clean heads, replace cartridges, perform
calibration, clear jams.

Now it’s time to cover one of the most important and exciting
topics yet! Printers!! Before we get too deep into it, we will diffuse a
potentially volatile topic that will not be appearing on your tests.

We will break down the printers by type and then for each type,
we will describe the components and troubleshoot various printer problems,
tracing them back to the component that is responsible.

Laser Printers

HP Laserjet Printer

Laser printers basically have two main areas of concern:

  • The
    printer, i.e. everything that is not the toner cartridge.
  • The
    toner cartridge

Laser unit dell visible 

Understanding the printing process step-by-step is your best
path to success in this area. All steps are occurring so fast that they appear
to happen almost simultaneously. We will look at each step, where it fits in
the process, and how it relates to other processes.

The cartridge contains all (or most) of the components needed to
create the image and to prepare it for transfer to the page.

Cartridge: This is the main replaceable item in a
Laser printer. The cartridge contains the drum, toner hopper, agitator blade, wiper
blade, and the shutter. Ever since the replaceable cartridge was introduced to
laser printing, maintenance and support needs of these printers has been
significantly reduced.

HP Cartridge

The ink cartridge, the drum, and toner, contains everything that
could be considered a consumable or wear item.

HP Drum & Toner

This includes the transfer belt, transfer roller, pickup rollers, separator pads, and duplexing assembly.

Click here for our A+ Exam Simulator for exams 220-1001 & 220-1002

Laser printing is a photo-electric process. 

Charging: The imaging drum has a very high negative
voltage (-600V) applied to it by a roller or a wire depending on the age.

Exposing: In this stage, the laser
writes the image onto the drum, increasing the voltage of the exposed areas
from approximately -600V to -100V.

Laser Exposing

Developing: The toner is applied to the drum by applying a light
charge, attracting the toner to the highly charged drum.

Fusing: The fusing assembly
provides both friction and heat to the paper as it passes through, melting the
toner onto the paper.

HP Fuser Kit

Cleaning: The drum is cleaned so that a new page
can be printed. This process utilizes the erase lamps which are a part of the printer
lid and are often covered with red film. Exposing the drum to this light erases
the drum completely. The scraper blade also removes any remnants, leaving a
completely clean drum ready for a new page to print.

HP Cleaner Kit

Example of preventative maintenance on an HP LaserJet:

As part of your periodic maintenance duties, you will be
assigned one or two printers to perform preventative maintenance. You have been
asked to perform preventative maintenance on an HP LaserJet.

Maintenance Kit

First, use the model number to look up the maintenance schedule
for your unit(s). After looking it up, you see the printer needs new rollers,
vacuuming, and toner cartridge replacement. In your toolkit, you have a
Datavac/2 Pro Series Toner Vac because it meets HP’s stringent requirements,
along with many other manufacturers. New printer parts are approved when they
pass the manufacturer’s requirements and are guaranteed to fit.

Datavac-2 Pro Series Toner Vac

An additional part that is becoming more popular in new printers
is the transfer belt or roller. This is used to move documents through
multicolor laser printers and scanners. Having the right tools and
documentation are crucial aspects when working on this.

Inkjet

Now to the bread and butter of SOHO printer implementations, we
have InkJet printers. These are inexpensive and an economical addition to your
Small/Home Office that will give your mailings, business cards, and pictures
that extra pop! You can use them to print decent letters too!

Whatever your design of choice, you will find inkjet printers that
are available in every price range and feature configuration. Inkjets are
compatible with most OS’s and connection types.

Ink cartridges are modular and can be replaced one at a time,
reducing the general maintenance cost. Each cartridge uses a heated nozzle to
disperse precise amounts of ink in order to produce the desired color or
pattern. The colored ink modules are driven back and forth on each line in
order to produce continuous, seamless, and high-resolution output. Many models
use belt driven ink delivery. These machines have evolved from cheap laser
alternatives into full-fledged, multifunction devices incorporating scanners, copiers,
and fax machines that can also act as standalone wireless devices. With the
addition of a duplexer, this modest little printer can play with the big boys!

Whenever you change a printer cartridge, the machine must be
recalibrated. If calibration is not performed, your print quality will suffer.

Thermal After
having paid for something at a cash register, have you ever looked at your
receipt and wondered why it looks funny and old-school and why there are two? This
is a thermal receipt and is one of the oldest cash accounting printing
technologies still in use.

Impact Printing, or Dot Matrix, was developed concurrently with thermal.
As money became more valuable, the desire to pilfer even small amounts grew
quickly. With no tracking system, companies could literally be robbed out of
solvency by its own employees. Adding machines were created to generate a hard
copy of any tabulations and to generate a record of all transactions. The current
benefit of dot matrix is its ability to print out multiple copies of the same
document, known as carbon copies.

Dot Matrix technology uses a ribbon that is impregnated with ink and a set of pins that fire independently, transferring a dot of ink on the paper at the point of impact. This point of impact has sufficient force to activate the carbon in a multi-page document so that duplicates can be generated in real-time.[

Virtual

Every computer in the world has the opportunity to create a
virtual counterpart. For the 220-1001 3.11 sub objective, you are expected
to know specifically that you can use your Operating System (OS) tools to
perform the following actions:

Print to file: The default
output saved from Print-to-file is a .prn file. Check the Print-to-file box in
the Printer Properties applet.

Print to PDF: Check the Print-to-PDF box in the
Printer Properties applet.

Print to XPS: Checking this uses the
built-in Microsoft printer.

Print to image: Installing PDFill (a 3rd party
program) will allow the Microsoft printer to print directly to an image format
such as PNG, PPG, BMP, TIF or GIF.

3D Printers

Plastic filament

The prices for 3D printers, in addition to the materials
used to print 3D objects, are beginning to drop. Once costing tens of thousands
of dollars, 3D printers can now be purchased for a thousand dollars. Printing
materials have become more affordable, with materials such as plastic filament
now costing around twenty dollars or less. That’s cheaper than inkjet
cartridges!

Looking at the 3D printing process, you’ll need good
software to create your 3D model and to transfer the digital model to the 3D printer.
You can then print the object in pretty much the same way as you would with a
standard printer, but not exactly.

Consider during standard 2D paper printing, a horizontal 1D
stripe is deposited line by line until your image or text is complete. Now with
3D printing, each pass of the printer head creates fine layers of the chosen
material, in our case plastic filament, that stack vertically. This process is
called Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF) or Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM). Both
of these processes are additive, meaning that each print layer is added on top
of the object until the object is complete. Depending on the process, the
filament can be melted with UV light or heat.

That’s all for objective 3.11 and for main domain 3. You’re over halfway there! Good luck on the test!

Click here if you want to go back to the A+ 220-1001 Table of Content

Click here for our A+ Exam Simulator for exams 220-1001 & 220-1002


Pass Your IT Certification Exams With Free Real Exam Dumps and Questions

Full Version 220-1001 Dumps

Categories
A+ 1001 Study Guide

A plus 220-1001 – Exam Objective 3.10 – Dumps4shared

A plus 220-1001 – Exam Objective 3.10

A+ Exam Objective 3.10

Click here if you want to go back to the A+ 220-1001 Table of Content

3.10 Given a scenario, configure SOHO multifunction devices/printers and settings.

Click here for our A+ Exam Simulator for exams 220-1001 & 220-1002

Welcome to Exam Notes by Dumps4shared! In this article, we
will cover Core 1 objective 3.10 Given a scenario, configure SOHO multifunction
devices/printers and settings.

 

Duplexing

Let’s start by looking at a multifunction printer. In the image
below, we have a network connected device that is capable of printing on both
sides of the paper, known as duplexing, through the use of an adapter on the
printer. This can save quite a bit of paper. Duplexing is accomplished by
printing the odd pages first, reorienting the paper, feeding it back into the
printer, and then printing the even pages.

Duplex setting in Windows

Collating and
Orientation

Another printer feature is collating. Collating is where the printed
pages are arranged in a pre-determined order.

There are two types of orientations used in printers. The first
is portrait mode where the output reads from top to bottom as a regular letter.
The second mode is landscape mode in which the page is printed with its long
side facing the top. This is good for materials that are wider than they are
high.

Portrait Printing Layout

Print Quality

You can also adjust the quality of the printer output by
choosing the paper type and size/quality. For example, change paper type to
Photo paper if you are printing pictures.

Print
quality settings

Printer Sharing

Printer device sharing is very dependent on how it is set up.

Wired printers are best for office use as the Ethernet
connections to other PCs are consistent. Start by connecting a workstation
printer and sharing it. The printer can be connected to the workstation using
USB, a legacy serial port, or through wireless. Once installed, the printer can
be shared by the workstation through a number of ways. For example, an ad-hoc
share where a one-to-one connection involving just two PCs and one printer can
be used. A Bluetooth connection is an example of this type.

Wireless printers open up a multitude of options. Wireless printers
contain their own integrated print servers and do not require connection to a
workstation. Devices can print directly to the printer through wireless and as
a result, these printers can be optimally placed in the workspace. Workstations
can connect directly to the printer using 802.11(a,b,g,n,ac) or Bluetooth. If
the printer is configured properly, it is capable of remote printing or cloud
printing, making it possible to instantly deliver a hard copy of a document
directly to the device from practically anywhere.

Sharing and
Security

Remember to think about security when planning this
configuration! Just putting a printer on the Internet exposes it to attacks. Securely
configure the device with user authentication because otherwise, anyone can
access the data being sent.

Hard drive caching

Expect not to have any semblance of privacy unless you are
encrypting your transmissions. Also remember that unless configured differently,
the print job is spooled or stored on a hard drive until the printer is ready.
This method is known as hard drive caching. Users who will be using the device
remotely should be properly authenticated.

In the case of a classroom or learning institution, a public
share may be acceptable. This would not be the case for a bank. Also, remember
that the printer will have its own interface that can be used to access the
features and functions of the device. It is important to be aware of the
Operating System settings for the device which can override the printer’s
applet. Check both to be sure.

OS
Properties

Printer applet

TCP/Bonjour/AirPrint

So how does one connect to a wireless printer? The material here
will apply to either Apple or Microsoft software.

The most common way to connect to a freestanding wireless
printer is through its IP address (TCP/IP). You can do this the hard way by
manually installing the printer or in the case of Apple or Apple compatible
products, the Bonjour service which will quickly find the device for you. An
easy way is to use AirPrint, a driverless program that can work from your
smartphone and will simply print it for you. Any combination of these will get
you going. In all cases, TCP will be the underlying carrier.

That’s all for objective 3.10. Good luck on the test!

Click here if you want to go back to the A+ 220-1001 Table of Content

Click here for our A+ Exam Simulator for exams 220-1001 & 220-1002

Pass Your IT Certification Exams With Free Real Exam Dumps and Questions

Full Version 220-1001 Dumps

Categories
A+ 1001 Study Guide

A plus 220-1001 – Exam Objective 3.9 – Dumps4shared

A plus 220-1001 – Exam Objective 3.9

A+ Exam Objective 3.9

Click here if you want to go back to the A+ 220-1001 Table of Content

3.9 Given a scenario, install and configure common devices.

Click here for our A+ Exam Simulator for exams 220-1001 & 220-1002

Welcome to Exam Notes by Dumps4shared! In this article, we
will cover Core 1 objective 3.9 which covers installation and configuration of
common devices according to a given scenario.

Desktop

One generally pictures a standard PC when thinking about
desktops, but there are other virtual configurations that appear the same.
These other configurations use cloud-based resources in order to create a
Virtual Desktop Interface (VDI) on the client’s computer which will be explained
below.

Thin client

The thin client is a PC that is heavily reliant on cloud
resources. This system will have minimal computational power. The thin client
will only meet the minimal requirements for the operating system and may only
support a browser and a broadband network connection in order to communicate
with the cloud based VM. The Cloud VM handles most, if not all, of the
processing for applications.

This is an attractive low-cost model. Portable devices such
as tablets and smartphones can take advantage of this virtualization.

Thick client

A regular desktop computer can be used as a thick client.
Thick refers to the computer’s configuration. These units meet or exceed the OS
and application requirements. A thick client can use the cloud based VDI or it
can be used as a standalone PC.

Account setup/settings

For clients to access virtual resources, they must have an
account on the cloud hypervisor/VM. If the user requires a configuration that
stays the same with each login, a persistent VDI is used. This allows the user
to create and save their own custom configuration which is presented during each
login. Conversely, a non-persistent VDI does not save any changes and delivers
a standard configuration with each login.

Laptop/common mobile devices

 Touchpad
configuration

How do we navigate through our operating systems without using a
mouse? For 99% of situations, the solution is the touch pad. We will look at a
well-worn laptop touchpad to illustrate how the device is used. Most of the
action takes place at the large top section of the touchpad. Here, your
fingertip uses capacitance to change the electrical properties of the touchpad,
allowing you to navigate around your desktop using the touchpad surface.

Notice how centered the wear pattern which indicates a well
configured pad. Left and right clicks are physical actions, requiring you to
push down on the buttons. This can be considered a form of biometric input
because the electrical properties of your fingertip create the connection point
that influences the motion. Biometrics are most often found in security
enforcement situations where an individual’s biological properties are used to
identify them in a more definitive way than with a token or passphrase.

Touchscreen configuration

A touchscreen is a device that takes physical input on your
display, such as finger or stylus movement, and converts it digitally. This
device makes it possible to draw directly into your program. Touchsreens are a
great accessory for a graphic artist, giving them the ability to create and
digitally modify their creations.

Touchscreen

Application installations/configurations

First, insure your
hardware connectivity requirements have been met. Second, review the software installation
requirements. Third, download and install the application to your PC. The
application is usually designed to be installed correctly on mobile or desktop
devices when the correct version is chosen.

Synchronization
methods

There are two main ways to sync data.

1) Synchronize to the Cloud

Synchronizing to the Cloud syncs your selected data to the
Cloud. An internet connection is required in order to accomplish this. Examples
of free, limited, and subscription-based cloud services include iTunes, iCloud,
Google Drive, Dropbox, and OneDrive. If you are using a proprietary
synchronization method, be aware that it may only sync the proprietary or
specially configured data. For example, a Dropbox sync requires that the data
to be synced to be uploaded first to the online Dropbox folder, after which it
will be synced. In the case of iOS products, only some of the content can be
synced such as purchased content.

2) Synchronize to the Desktop

Synchronizing to the Desktop is quite common and in many cases
is accomplished through a physical connection between the mobile device and the
desktop. However, sync can be configured across all configured devices. In the
image below, we use Windows Media player to sync images between the desktop and
an Android device.

Android
Sync with Desktop

Account setup/settings

A Windows workstation
can create two account types for new users: Standard and Administrator. When
creating new users, it is best to make them Standard. New users can be added to
Groups if they need additional privileges. A new user is created from the control
panel by clicking the User Accounts applet. This opens an Account wizard which
initially asks for the user’s email
address and password. If you do not have this info, this page can be skipped
and you can create an account with just a username and password that you set.
The password can and should be changed when the user first accesses the
machine. Once the user is set up on their machine, they have the option to
create a Single sign-on Microsoft account which gives them Cloud access to
online storage and more. Other vendors offer similar services.

Wireless settings

In order to configure a
wireless connection to a router, you will need the Service Set Identifier
(SSID) of the wireless router and the passphrase. You will also need to know
the router’s encryption and security type along with the
channel number in case you run into connection issues. Wireless security can be
improved by stopping the router from broadcasting its SSID, filtering the MAC
addresses allowed to connect to it, and reducing the radio power. Radio power
is often overlooked but today’s router
ranges far exceed what you would need to cover a SOHO or even a business with
an unobstructed floor plan.

That’s all for objective 3.9. Good luck on the test!

Click here if you want to go back to the A+ 220-1001 Table of Content

Click here for our A+ Exam Simulator for exams 220-1001 & 220-1002

Pass Your IT Certification Exams With Free Real Exam Dumps and Questions

Full Version 220-1001 Dumps

Categories
A+ 1001 Study Guide

A plus 220-1001 – Exam Objective 3.8 – Dumps4shared

A plus 220-1001 – Exam Objective 3.8

A+ Exam Objective 3.8

Click here if you want to go back to the A+ 220-1001 Table of Content

3.8 Given a scenario, select and configure appropriate components for a custom PC configuration that meets customer specifications or needs.

Click here for our A+ Exam Simulator for exams 220-1001 & 220-1002

Welcome to Exam Notes by Dumps4shared! In this article we
will cover Core 1 objective3.8 Given a scenario, select and configure
appropriate components for a custom PC configuration that meets customer
specifications or needs.

We will look at a performance based question and explore how
that question type can address exam objective 3.8. Objective 3.8 aims at
assessing your ability to “Given a scenario, select the appropriate
components for a custom PC configuration that meets customer specifications or
needs.”
 First notice that the exam objective starts by stating “Given
a scenario…”.

This is important because this signals that CompTIA will not be
satisfied with just asking you simple knowledge based question. CompTIA will
want to see you apply this knowledge to a given situation as it would occur in
real life. This is where a Performance Based Question comes in particularly
handy.

The Performance Based Question we have used in this post can also be viewed on our YouTube Channel at

This example (as well as above video) comes from a
Dumps4shared A+ practice test for CompTIA A+ 220-1001:

A+ 220-1001 Performance Based Question (PBQ) – Custom
workstation assembly.

The above screenshot is taken from an exam in Study Mode (choose
Study Mode when you want to be able to see the answers and explanations). The
scenario that sub-objective 3.8 puts you in is one where you are asked to
perform a “custom PC configuration” based on customer specifications or needs.
In this question you are asked to configure a CAD/CAM workstation. Here is the
question as presented:

“You are assembling a CAD/CAM design workstation. From the parts
available choose those that best meet the requirements. Drag the labels to the
correct motherboard locations.”

Keep in mind that since you are configuring a CAD/CAM design
workstation from the parts available, you need to choose parts that meet the
requirements. To achieve that in this performance based question, drag the
appropriate labels to the correct motherboard location. There is a list of components
in the left pane.

A+ practice test question for Exam1 – Starting position

On the right of the screen is a motherboard with highlighted
locations. These are the targets. Here is a portion of 3.8 that highlights the
CAD/CAM design workstation requirements (you will need to know these inside and
out by the time you take the test).

CompTIA A+ 220-1001 Exam Objective 3.8
– CAD/CAM

In order to answer this question, consider making sub-objective 3.8
your virtual answer grid. Here is how we can do this. Under 3.8, CompTIA’s
requirement for a CAD/CAM design workstation is:

A) Multicore processor
B) High-end video
C) Maximum RAM

With that in mind, let’s go back to the choices presented in the
question. After consideration, here is what your A, B, and
C
 answers should be for this question:

A) The first choice is 8GB RAM which is a decent amount but
not the only good amount. Checking the rest of the choices, 32GB is available
and since the requirement is maximum RAM, the choice is simple.
Select 32 GB and drag it to the memory slots on the motherboard.

B)  The answer at the top of the list is the AMD 145 Sempron which
is a decent processor but only has a single core. We need a multicore processor.
The AMD FX-8150 has 8 cores which easily qualifies it as multicore, a label that is assigned to the
processor. Here is where you should realize that knowledge of actual hardware
specifications is as just as critically important to the exam as the exam
objective requirements.

C) The choice is between the Galaxy GeForce GTX760, with 4GB
of memory, and the Nvidia GeForce GT240 that has 1GB of memory. The GTX both outperforms
the GT and has more memory that is also faster. The GTX satisfies CompTIA’s “high-end
video
” requirement. You’ll drag the GTX card to the slot and since we are
in Study mode, we can check the answer:

Success! We get a “Question Answered Correctly” message (see green text at the bottom of the frame). There is also an explanation of what we did and why we did it.

The main take home here is that if 1) you know your components,
and 2) you know the requirements for the different workstations under exam
objective 3.8, then it’s almost hard to miss any of these questions.

Of course, this is not the only performance based question type
on the A+ Core 1 exam. There are others. There is also a distinct difference
between the performance based question in 220-1001 compared to 220-902. In
220-1001, the questions tend to be this kind of “enhanced drag and drop” while
in A+ 220-902, the performance based questions are more software
simulations within the software where you may be asked to perform tasks. Performance
based questions in A+ 220-1002 will be discussed in later.

Please see our narrated video about this question on our YouTube Channel.

We are hoping that if nothing else, you have learned that the
process of elimination combined with your hardware knowledge will allow you to master
any of the questions that address sub-objective 3.8.

That’s all for objective 3.8. Good luck on the test!

Click here if you want to go back to the A+ 220-1001 Table of Content

Click here for our A+ Exam Simulator for exams 220-1001 & 220-1002


Pass Your IT Certification Exams With Free Real Exam Dumps and Questions

Full Version 220-1001 Dumps

Categories
A+ 1001 Study Guide

A plus 220-1001 – Exam Objective 3.7 – Dumps4shared

A plus 220-1001 – Exam Objective 3.7

A+ Exam Objective 3.7

Click here if you want to go back to the A+ 220-1001 Table of Content

3.7 Summarize power supply types and features.

Click here for our A+ Exam Simulator for exams 220-1001 & 220-1002

Welcome to Exam Notes by Dumps4shared! In
this article, we will cover Core 1 objective 3.7 Summarize power supply
types and features.

Input 115V vs.
220V

When hooking up the power to your system, one of the main things
you’ll notice is that directly near the three-prong power connector is a small
switch that reads 115/230. This switch allows the PSU to accommodate
international voltage and allows you to provide the correct voltage to your PC.

24-pin motherboard adapter

The main function of a power supply is to provide the correct
amount of power to the motherboard. The connection between the power supply and
the motherboard has evolved from a single connector into a two-part connector, the
20+4 pin connector. This connector will supply the appropriate power to where
it is needed. In the image below, the white connector is the legacy connector
and can be compared to the newer 20+4 pin. On the newer 20+4 pin, the
additional four pins are free and can be moved over in order to provide an
additional 12 volts to the processor. Both connectors shown below are the main
connectors to the motherboard and operate at +3.3V, +/- 5V, and +/- 12V.

Motherboard
power connectors: 20 (white) and 24 pin (black).

Output 3.5V, 5V and 12V

Here’s a look at the connectors you will find on an ATX
power supply. Listed first are the connectors that supply power to the drives
and provide supplemental power to the motherboard.

• Wattage rating

Any discussion of a
power supply will include wattage. For a power supply, wattage is the amount of
power that can be delivered to the system. When selecting a power supply, ensure
you are delivering the correct amount, i.e. an amount that will support the sum
of the components your system will have. Different processor and memory
combinations will have different power requirements. Use an online wattage
calculator to determine your needs, then add on another 10% on top for power peaks.

Number of devices/types of devices to be powered

This is a crucial element of power supply selection. When
replacing a power supply, always select a replacement power supply with the
same wattage or higher. For a new build, you can calculate your power needs
using an online wattage calculator. You’ll be surprised how much power you need.
As you add drives, expansion cards, and fans you’ll see your power requirement
rise. The motherboard, processor, and memory will also play a role. For example
after using one power supply calculator, the calculated requirement for an
older processor was 502 W (this is a load of 452 W + 10%). When we plugged in (😊) values for the latest
Socket/ CPU, our load jumped to 681 W + 10% = 731 recommended wattage. Always
get a bigger power supply than you need. 
You’ll never know when you may want to add a hard drive or DVD player.

That’s all for objective 3.7. Good luck on the test!

Click here if you want to go back to the A+ 220-1001 Table of Content

Click here for our A+ Exam Simulator for exams 220-1001 & 220-1002

Pass Your IT Certification Exams With Free Real Exam Dumps and Questions

Full Version 220-1001 Dumps

Categories
A+ 1001 Study Guide

A plus 220-1001 – Exam Objective 3.6 – Dumps4shared

A plus 220-1001 – Exam Objective 3.6

A+ Exam Objective 3.6

Click here if you want to go back to the A+ 220-1001 Table of Content

3.6 Explain the purpose and use of various peripheral types.

Click here for our A+ Exam Simulator for exams 220-1001 & 220-1002

Welcome to Exam Notes by Dumps4shared! In this article, we
will cover Core 1 objective 3.6 Explain the purpose and use of various
peripheral types.

Printers

Printers create hard copies of the content displayed on your
computer’s display. This can be as simple as printing a note from your word
processor. On the other hand, you can also take a screenshot of your display
for troubleshooting purposes. There are several types of printers you are
expected to know for the test.

You will be expected to know these different types of printers
and how they operate.

Impact printers or Dot matrix use the impact
method to create paper prints.

Inkjet distributes fluid ink on the paper by ejecting small
amounts of colored dye from small ink containers.

LaserJet uses the electromagnetic properties of
the ink, the drum, and the fuser to create the most stable output type.
Moisture does not cause LaserJet prints to distort unlike other types.

ADF/flatbed scanners

Multi-function devices combine useful technologies into a single
device. You may initially see an inkjet printer and on closer examination see that
it is also a flatbed scanner. The scanner may have automatic document feed
(ADF) which allows you to scan multiple documents and then either print them or
save as a file on the network.

Scanners and Barcode readers

Practically all products sold today have a barcode somewhere on
their packaging. The arrangement of the bars provides specific product
information which is read by the barcode reader and passed onto a cash register
or other payment device. This practice has been so successful that companies
found that by changing its format, they could add more information to the
barcode such as web links to the manufacturer’s web page. The QR (Quick
Response) code was developed to satisfy this need and is read by the consumer
using their smartphone. It is not unusual to see a shopper reading a QR code
and comparing products using their phone.

Optical

DVD-ROM / DVD-RW / DVD-RW DL

The same principles that apply to CD-ROMs apply to DVD-ROMs,
DVD-RWs, and DVD DLs. The capacity of the DVD disc increased to 4.7 GB. This is
accomplished by increasing the density of the pits and lands while still using
a red laser. It was discovered that the capacity of the DVD-ROM could be
doubled to 8.5 GB by using two layers of recordable dye. The laser can then focus
on one layer at a time. All of the DVD drives discussed will be either internal
(PATA/SATA) or external. 

Keyboard/Mouse

We start out with the keyboard and mouse. Believe it or not, the
first consumer grade PCs did not have a mouse or even a graphical interface!
Everything was command line driven. Originally, mice were connected through the
serial port. They then upgraded to PS/2 and then ultimately to USB.

Keyboards followed roughly the same path. However, keyboards were
originally connected using an XT connector, a DIN connector that was twice the
size of the PS/2. Keyboard design evolved from an alpha numeric rectangular
device, which reportedly caused fatigue and nerve damage after extensive use,
to a curvy ergonomic design that was more natural. Newer keyboards and mice are
wireless, allowing for user mobility during gaming and home theatre aplications.

Click here for our A+ Exam Simulator for exams 220-1001 & 220-1002

Touchpads & signature pads

How do we navigate through our operating systems without using a
mouse? For 99% of situations, the solution is the touch pad. We will look at a
well-worn laptop touchpad to illustrate how the device is used. Most of the
action takes place at the large top section of the touchpad. Here, your
fingertip uses capacitance to change the electrical properties of the touchpad,
allowing you to navigate around your desktop using the touchpad surface.

Touchpad

Notice how centered the wear pattern which indicates a well
configured pad. Left and right clicks are physical actions, requiring you to
push down on the buttons. This can be considered a form of biometric input
because the electrical properties of your fingertip create the connection point
that influences the motion. Biometrics are most often found in security
enforcement situations where an individual’s biological properties are used to
identify them in a more definitive way than with a token or passphrase.

Signature pad

Another type of touch sensitive device is the glass-in signature
pad. The signature pad, otherwise known as the digitizer, is composed of a
three-piece electronic sandwich where the glass is the top layer. By pressing
on the top layer with a stylus, you can electronically authorize a transaction
with your digital signature.

Signature pad

• Monitors

Not so long ago, computers used CRT monitors to display graphical
output. CRTs were bulky and heavy. A 22” CRT weighed over 50 pounds. LCD
displays were first used in laptops and proved to be suitable for desktops. LCD
technology is able to produce higher resolutions than CRTs and a 22” LCD can be
carried with one hand.

Useful peripherals

Broadband access, now available to most users, made long
distance meetings commonplace. In addition to your PC, all you need is a webcam
and a microphone. If you have a newer laptop or a tablet, the webcam and
microphone are built in. If not, your best bet is to get a USB webcam and
microphone. Other items designed to make your life easier is the digital camera.
There’s probably one built into your smartphone.

You can take the digital memory card in your camera and transfer
your pictures to your PC using a smart card reader. This is also true of movies
you create with a camcorder.

Gaming

OK! Enough of the boring stuff. Let’s play a game! Let’s
talk about a First Person (that’s you) Shooter (what you have in your hand)
(FPS). In an FPS game, you walk around, shoot things, and collect items. To
navigate and perform actions, you will use your mouse and keyboard at the
minimum. You may also need a Game pad or a USB Joystick. Now let’s get some
action.

The same first person shooter mentioned above can be moved
into the virtual environment. Virtual reality (VR) headsets provide an
immersive visual environment for gaming. Broadband internet allows multiplayer
gaming and enables players to communicate and form teams using headset
microphones, ear buds, and speakers. VR headsets are now being used for police
and military training to combine safety with immersive virtual reality
environments.

VR headset

Joystick & Gamepad

• Projector

One display type you may encounter is the projector. Screen
output is backlit and projected onto a screen or even a clean white wall. This
gives a great deal of control over the size of the projected image.

Brightness and lumens

The brightness of a display is measured in lumens and is the
measurement of the candle power produced by an object. Let’s say lumens =
brightness and more lumens is usually better. A low cost monitor, sufficient
for office productivity, can be rated as low as 250 lumens while a high
performance CAD/CAM or gaming monitor can be rated in the tens of thousands of
lumens.

• External storage drives

Hot swappable drivesprovide
storage flexibility for PCs and laptops through an external interface that
allows hard disks to be added or removed without the need to power down the
machine. Originally this was a complex operation, but the introduction of USB
and SATA technologies combine to make this a reasonably safe process. The
configuration can be a single drive or an enclosure that houses multiple drives
that can be swapped in and out as necessary. It is a good idea to check the
write caching status on your drive dock that you intend to swap drives on. This
is disabled by default but it’s best to turn this on to allow recovery of last
data. You will find this setting in Device Manager in the properties of the
device.

KVM Switch

KVM stands for Keyboard Video Mouse. A KVM switch saves space by
allowing one keyboard, monitor, and mouse to be used across multiple PCs. You
can switch from one PC to another by simply pressing a button.

Magnetic reader/chip reader

ID badges

Security badges contain coded data that identifies you to the
security system and includes a current picture and personal security
challenges. Your security data can be stored on a magnetic strip or NFC
contactless storage. The card should also have the company logo and be
tamperproof. NFC is also the technology that supports tap and pay transactions.

Smart cards

Smart cards are another way to deliver security tokens to the
system. Smart cards may or may not be combined with badge technology. One thing
that separates many smart cards from other tech is its ability to both send and
receive data. This enables mutual authentication, allowing each component to
trust the other. Smart card readers scan for smartcards in range. When one is
detected, communication can begin.

Smartcard

Well that’s it for objective 3.6. Stay with it! Good luck on the test!

Click here if you want to go back to the A+ 220-1001 Table of Content

Click here for our A+ Exam Simulator for exams 220-1001 & 220-1002

Pass Your IT Certification Exams With Free Real Exam Dumps and Questions

Full Version 220-1001 Dumps

Categories
A+ 1001 Study Guide

A plus 220-1001 – Exam Objective 3.5 – Dumps4shared

A plus 220-1001 – Exam Objective 3.5

A+ Exam Objective 3.5

Click here if you want to go back to the A+ 220-1001 Table of Content

3.5 Given a scenario, install and configure motherboards, CPUs, and add-on cards.

Click here for our A+ Exam Simulator for exams 220-1001 & 220-1002

Welcome to Exam Notes by Dumps4shared! In this article, we
will cover Core 1 objective 3.5 Given a scenario, install
and configure motherboards, CPUs, and add-on cards.

The Motherboard Form Factor

Although it sounds like the motherboard design is pretty
standardized, the truth is that the original design has evolved dramatically
since its inception. Here we will break them down by design, technically
referred to as their Form Factor, and
the standards that govern them. Form factor is a crucial term. When you refer
to an ATX Form Factor, you have also defined the size of the internal case
dimensions, the connection type, the size of the power supply, and the
measurements and connection type of the Motherboard power. Listed below are the
Form Factors the A+ 220-901 exam is concerned with:

ATX

This is the standard motherboard size. It is the platform for
workstations and gaming PCs alike. Its form factor specification calls for a
size of 12.0” by 9.6”. The processor you can use is determined by what will fit
in the socket of the motherboard you’ve chosen. Let’s assume you did your
homework and know that the processor type, motherboard, and memory are all
correct and meet your design requirements. If any one of these are wrong, you will
not have a working PC. Refer to A+ 220-901 sub-objective 1.9 for a good starting
point on this.

Micro-ATX (mATX)

In order to reduce the overall size of PCs, smaller form factors
were introduced. One of these was the Micro-ATX (mATX) which shaves a few
inches off of the length (9.6” by 9.6”). It shares the same power supply
connections with the regular ATX along with the same input/output back panel. mATX
cannot replace a full-size ATX motherboard but it can contain onboard audio. It
also contains at least one expansion slot that can be used by a riser card.

Mini-ITX (aka ITX)

Mini-ITX is by far the favorite by those who seek silence over
performance. That is not to say that performance generates noise, but it does
generate heat which in turn requires cooling which can generate noise.
Obviously given its size, Mini-ITX accommodates fewer components compared to
the other form factors.

Motherboard connector types

PCI

The 32-bit PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect) bus is the oldest expansion slot currently covered under the A+ objectives. It is available in 32 or 64-bit versions and is used to connect legacy hardware to the PC as seen in the image below.

PCI 32 or 64-bit versions

PCI was subsequently replaced by PCI Express (PCI-e) which is
practically the only PCI slot you’ll see today.

PCI-X

PCI-X (where X stands for extended) comes with 32 or 64-bit
slots that are designed to be backwards compatible with 32-bit PCI cards. These
cards are designed to run at 3.3 V. The higher voltage portion of the slot is
beyond what the 32-bit 3.3 V card can reach.

PCI-e

Another variation of PCI is sometimes written as PCI-e (where e
is for Express). PCI-e and PCI-X are not compatible with each other. When using
PCI-Express, 16 lanes of communication are available and the physical size of
the card will determine the number of lanes it may utilize. For example, an x16
slot will accommodate an x1 card

In the following image, you can see the PCI-e 16 slots: The
first one is black and the second is blue. The slots can be used together for
increased bandwidth.

PCI-e
16 slots: The first is black and the second is blue.

Mini-PCI / Mini-PCIe

USB is always an option when adding a wireless card. Here we’ll
talk about internal expansion options: the Mini PCI slot and the Mini-PCIe
slot. Here is how they compare.

Mini-PCI to Mini-PCIe Comparison

The Mini-PCI and the Mini-PCIe slot allow manufacturers to
adjust laptop features to user needs without having to design a new laptop. The
slot works the same way as in desktops, only on a much smaller scale. Accessible
through a service panel, the Mini-PCIe slot is USB 2.0 compliant and can be
used to increase storage capacity, add Bluetooth, or add/upgrade wireless
capabilities. For example, a user with a decent laptop and 802.11 b/g/n
wireless only had to buy an 802.11g or 802.11ac card and swap it out if they
wanted a wireless upgrade. This wireless upgrade required care and patience
because while the card was easy to swap out, the internal antennae have tiny F
type connectors that take time and care to connect. Pictured here is a
Mini-PCIe wireless card ready to be installed. Note the black slot and the gold
antenna connectors. The card will be screwed into a secure position.

True computer portability was born in laptops with the
introduction of the mini-PCI card. This card could be a modem or a wireless
interface card. Improvements have followed but real untethered portability
began with this standard.

Riser cards

Space inside the PC has always been at a premium. One clever
solution is to change the orientation of the installed expansion card. Instead of
installing vertically in a single slot, the riser makes it possible to mount
multiple cards horizontally from one vertical installation (see picture). The
cards can vary in height but this does not have any impact on the case height.
This type of arrangement can support up to four cards per slot. There is
renewed interest with these cards due to the popularity of Home Theater PC
units which need the capabilities of a full size PC with half the space.

Riser Card with two horizontal slots

Click here for our A+ Exam Simulator for exams 220-1001 & 220-1002

CPU Sockets

This section addresses CPU sockets, the processors they support,
and the technologies they employ. The first thing you will notice is that there
are many pin configurations and design variations. There are eleven individual socket
types but these can be grouped into two main categories. The PGA (Pin Grid
Array) type consists of a socket on the motherboard which is made up of a
pattern of small receptors designed to only accept a particular chip’s pin
pattern. Then there is the LGA (Land Grid Array) type which reverses the PGA design
by putting the small fragile pins inside the socket where they have greater
protection against bending and breakage. The LGA design also provides a more
solid connection.

NOTE: Intel favors the LGA package while AMD offers a mix of LGA (TR4)
and PGA chips (AM series and FM2). Intel and AMD processors use incompatible
motherboards.

Asus P7P55-M LGA 1156

Although 32-bit processor architecture is present, most of today’s systems have moved to 64-bit architecture. Another thing to consider is that a new machine today will likely have its GPU (Graphics Processing Unit) integrated on the processor chip.

Notice how the LGA socket is configured to make optimal contact
with an LGA processor. This is a bit of a hardware revolution compared to
previous PGA designs which used pins on the processor chip to make the
connection. These pins are not only fragile but get exposed to more incidental
damage than those in the LGA design which uses the socket to help protect the
pins. Be advised this does not mean that the PGA design is gone. LGA is where
the technology is headed but PGA units exist in vast numbers.

Disable execute bit

Both Intel and AMD processors offer a hardware-based security
feature which prevents application code from executing in specified memory
areas. This feature is known by several names: Execute Disable Bit (EDB) and eXecute
Disable (XD) by Intel and Enhanced Virus Protection (EVP) by AMD. This feature
is generically called the NX bit (no-execute). CompTIA refers to this feature
as the disable execute bit. Although it’s a processor feature, the disable execute
bit must also be supported by the UEFI/BIOS and the operating system. When
enabled, the processor can isolate certain memory areas and prevent the
execution of malware, particularly those that produce buffer overflows.

SATA & eSATA
connectors

We start with the SATA connector. This connection uses Serial
Advanced Technology Attachment (SATA) for internal drive connections such as
hard disks and optical drives. SATA is the replacement for Parallel ATA (PATA) which
was the preceding primary drive connection method. Because of its flexibility,
the SATA interface can connect externally to the machine using an eSATA port.
In the table, you can see the internal SATA Data and power connectors. Many
SATA devices ship with a MOLEX-to-SATA adapter cable for power. eSATA connects
external devices. You can distinguish the SATA from eSATA by noting the L
shaped SATA connector. The eSATA connector has a straight rectangular interface
and an external rib on each side of the plug. This feature prevents improper
insertion.

Front panel / USB
connector

This is for the hundreds of thousands of technicians who spent
their days crawling underneath desks to hook up speakers. We now have
front panel connections for a variety of configurable connectors. This includes
USB which allows for incredible ease of connectivity for a wide variety of
devices. It’s safe to say your prayers (and mine) are answered.

Here are some of the options available for the front panel:
> USB
> Audio
> Power button
> Power light
> Drive activity lights
> Reset button

Hooking up the system LEDs while also showing some motherboard
connections and labels.

 

BIOS / UFEI
settings

Here we will look at the PC’s BIOS (Basic Input Output System)
and UEFI (Unified Extensible Firmware Interface) configuration from the CompTIA
A+ 220-901 exam perspective. Your knowledge of these technologies, old and new,
holds the key to success on the A+ exam.

Take the System BIOS or UEFI as an example. Now this is cool!
It’s a GUI! Menu driven! And that is just looks. Now we stop and before the
smart half of the class starts yelling, I’ll take care of this. If you are
using UEFI you don’t have a UEFI BIOS. UEFI Is
UEFI and BIOS is BIOS
. Although they appear to perform similar
functions, the similarities are superficial. For example, changing the boot
drive is a common feature and easily configured for either firmware. The same
is not true for configuring HDD’s that are greater than 4 TB.

OK, we have identified the type of firmware involved and their
roles but suppose you stumble on a working motherboard that has the components
you need onboard! Fantastic news! All you have to do is ensure firmware
compatibility. Depending on your equipment and its level of support, this can
be as simple as pressing a button on the motherboard (UEFI) or as tough as
assembling the whole machine and evaluating the results (BIOS). Refer to the
documentation and choose your path.

In a BIOS configured system, you will encounter a tab based
multilevel interface that is navigated using the keyboard only. Most BIOS have
the following main tabs:

Main: Contains Main entries for system date and time. Shows amount
of installed memory.

Example of main tab in BIOS

Devices: Depending on your
configuration, you may or may not have these choices. If you have the following
items, this is where they will be: Serial Port Setup, USB Setup, ATA Drive
Setup, Video Setup, Audio Setup, and Network Setup.

Advanced:  Will contain settings for the primary
CPU setup and manageability. Items such as Multiprocessing, Hyper Threading,
and Virtualization technologies will be controlled here.

Power: This section controls the system behavior
after a power loss. Power saving settings are also stored here along with
automatic cooling settings (if any).

Security Boot: This section
contains the capability to lock down the system as necessary, from power on and
administrative passwords to setting Secure Boot. Also listed here is the
provision to allow or disallow BIOS flashing.

Exit:  You can save your changes and exit or disregard them if
you made a mistake.

Observing the
BIOS configuration, you will notice settings for:

Boot sequence: Selecting
the order in which device boot data is loaded. This could be anything from a
USB stick, a CD-ROM, or a hard disk. For stronger security, disable USB boot.

Enabling and disabling devices: This
controls which devices will be considered as acceptable when seeking boot data.
Again, consider security factors when making these decisions.

Date/time: Current System
Date/Time. A zero-day attack can be triggered by changing the date.

Clock speeds: Timings set for CPU
and memory. Changing these could easily reduce system stability.

Virtualization support: Enable/disable
hardware virtualization support

BIOS security: Enable/disable security
settings including TPM, passwords, lo-jack, and secure boot.

CMOS Battery

CMOS/UEFI settings (the System Configuration Information) are stored
safely in the firmware. All of these essential settings are maintained by a
small watch battery. When this battery is low or dead, signs of failure include
the loss of the PC date and time and the loss of hard disks. Make certain that the
configuration does not get lost or forgotten by keeping it electronically
refreshed. Firmware is reasonably resistant to data loss but to be safe, it is
periodically refreshed electronically using a tried and true 2032 battery. This
battery model remains unchanged since 1985!

CMOS Battery

CPU features

When selecting your processor and motherboard, the key features
you should be concerned with are the processor speed, the number of cores, and
the amount of cache memory available. When calculating your processor speed, remember
that if you have four 2GHz cores, the resultant speed is not additive. What you
have is four cores capable of operating at 2.0 GHz simultaneously. Your
processor with four 2 Ghz cores does not equate to an 8GHz
processor.  

A good look in the BIOS/UEFI will flesh out the rest of the
information you need to satisfy this objective. On Intel motherboards, is hyper
threading enabled? You want hyper threading to be active because this enables
your processor to work on multiple tasks, smoothing out the operations and allowing
several things to take place at once.

You also want to check your L1, L2, and L3 cache. These
locations act as temporary holding areas for data that are in process but not
complete. L1 is the fastest and usually the most expensive real estate on the
machine. Generally, L1 cache is in multiples of 64k of fast memory on the
processor chip. Following that will be the L2 cache. Sometimes L2 cache is on
the chip but more often than not it’s on the motherboard. L3 cache, if present,
will be on the motherboard. All of these relatively small storage areas save
the PC from having to save and retrieve data from the system buses during
routine operations.

Virtual technology

You will undoubtedly be tested on this topic. Virtualization
enables you to run multiple instances of complete machines on a single hardware
platform. This is a considerable resource savings and quite a boost to
productivity. Remember to check the BIOS/UEFI first. With virtualization
enabled in BIOS, you can install as many virtual machines as you like! However,
everything must be properly licensed. Once installed, you can’t tell the
virtual machine from the original!

Cooling and
Processor Speeds

Processor speed is defined by the core speed of the processor
multiplied by the speed of the Front Side Bus. The processor speed can be
manipulated. Processor speed is sometimes sped up or “Overclocked” by
increasing the multiplier of the Front Side Bus. This practice can be dangerous
since the faster the processor runs, the hotter it gets. For normal use,
processors come supplied with a 12-volt fan and heatsink that is attached to
the processor via thermal paste and clamps. This provides adequate cooling for
general use but will prove inadequate in extreme situations such as
overclocking. If you intend to overclock the machine, it is important to
upgrade the cooling system to a liquid-based system and add fans to the case. Otherwise,
you will shorten the life of the processor.

Passive Heat Sink

No discussion of heat control in today’s PCs would be complete
without mentioning the original cooling solution. The passive (or fanless)
heatsink consists of a small aluminum block with fins that stick up vertically
to catch airflow and dissipate the heat from the chip. A remarkably simple
design, the passive heatsink creates enormous surface area for more effective
heat exchange.

Thermal Paste

The exchange is where the chip conducts its heat through a layer
of thermally conductive paste which is used to avoid uneven thermal transfer.

Attaching a fan to the passive heatsink creates the more
familiar active heatsink.

Active Heat Sink

The most modern approach for moving heat is the liquid based
cooler.

This design takes the elements described up to this point and
adds cooling liquid. Sealed and leak-proof, a liquid based cooling system flows
liquid over the chip to absorb the heat. The liquid is then cooled through radiators
located in cooler areas of the machine, dramatically decreasing the
temperature. The cooled liquid is then returned to the chip and the process
repeats continuously.

Liquid Based Cooler

Video cards

Most of today’s PCs ship with video integrated in the
motherboard. These solutions are more than sufficient for the average user.
Very advanced users, such as graphic artists and extreme gamers, will
order custom cards or manually upgrade their video components. Users will seek
cards that have very high frame rates, as much fast memory as they can afford,
and the fastest video interface attainable.

PCI Express 2.0 x16 Video
Card

Here’s a card that fits the bill: PCI Express 2.0 x16 connection,
good speed, fast memory, and lots of connectors. Adapters are usually used for
other possible connections. These expansion cards can be used either as
upgrades or as replacements for a failed motherboard component.

Sound cards

For most PCs, sound chips are being embedded on the motherboards.
If it is deficient, sound will be one of the first PC shortcomings users will
want to address. Usually, upgrades will entail a pair (or more) of speakers and
a more powerful sound card to drive the speakers. Sound cards are usually an
internal device that connects to a PCI expansion slot. A typical sound card is
shown in the image below.

Typical PCI-e-x1 sound card

Network cards

There are two types of network cards: wired and wireless.

Wired network cards

First we will look at the wired cards. These cards have either
Fiber optic, Ethernet, or both. When your Ethernet card fails or if there is a
good reason to upgrade, such as for a faster Ethernet switch, it’s time to look
at your network specifications. Determine the best fit for the new or proposed
network and select the card. Don’t buy it yet! Check your machine for free
ports and make sure that they are compatible with your card choice.

Wireless network cards

The same holds true for wireless cards. Check the specs! Most of
the time, you will end up adding an internal card but it is easy to find USB
models of these cards. It’s easy to see that the wireless networking trend took
off quickly and there were innumerable laptops and portables with Ethernet only
connections installed that needed wireless upgrades. The quickest and easiest
solution to this condition was to develop a USB Wireless adapter. There! All
fixed. 

There are also a number of Wireless network cards available in
PCI and PCI-e configurations.

USB cards

USB Cards provide additional or even faster USB connections to
your PC. Available in several configurations (with internal and external ports),
you can take a PC with USB 1.0 installed and add a USB 3.0 card. If the card
has internal connections, you can also upgrade your hard disk. Ultimately, you
will triple the throughput of your connected devices. If you have any need to
upgrade, consider the USB option for ease of use.

eSATA cards

Covered above.

That’s everything for sub-objective 3.5! Good luck on the test!

Click here if you want to go back to the A+ 220-1001 Table of Content

Click here for our A+ Exam Simulator for exams 220-1001 & 220-1002

Pass Your IT Certification Exams With Free Real Exam Dumps and Questions

Full Version 220-1001 Dumps

Categories
A+ 1001 Study Guide

A plus 220-1001 – Exam Objective 3.4 – Dumps4shared

A plus 220-1001 – Exam Objective 3.4

A+ Exam Objective 3.4

Click here if you want to go back to the A+ 220-1001 Table of Content

3.4 Given a scenario, select, install, and configure storage devices.

Click here for our A+ Exam Simulator for exams 220-1001 & 220-1002

Welcome to Exam Notes by Dumps4shared! In this article, we
will cover Core 1 objective 3.4 Given a scenario, select, install, and
configure storage devices.

Optical Drives/Media Capacity

CD-ROM / CD-RW

CD-ROMs are optical media drives that
read round plastic discs which contain an aluminum or dye coating on one side. This
coating contains pits and lands or binary ons and offs. CD-ROMs are mass
produced by music or software distributors and are read-only. The maximum
capacity for a CD-ROM is 700 MB of data or 80 minutes of audio. Don’t forget to
allow 2 seconds between each track if you are cutting it close. 

CD-Rs and CD-RWs are
writable CD-ROMs. CD-Rs can only be written once while CD-RWs are rewritable,
meaning the data on them can be completely overwritten with new data or the
disc can be erased. Writing to a writable CD media requires a CD-RW drive.
Since these drives use a red laser to write to the recordable dye in the
backing, CD-RW drives are referred to as a burner. CD-RW drives are most
commonly internal devices (PATA / SATA) but can also be quite useful as a
portable device, allowing you to back up data before working on a unit. You may
also see these drives’ write speed expressed as 52x or 48x where the x
indicates the increase in speed.

Pits and Lands in Optical media

Pits and Lands represent the ones and zeros in binary storage.
The raised dots or oblong bits displayed are the lands and the remaining space
on the disc are the pits. This technology is the same for all optical media.
Only the density of the lands varies, allowing for more data depending on the
size and density.

DVD-ROM / DVD-RW / DVD-RW DL

The same principles that apply to CD-ROMs apply to DVD-ROMs,
DVD-RWs, and DVD DLs. The capacity of the DVD disc increased to 4.7 GB. This is
accomplished by increasing the density of the pits and lands while still using
a red laser. It was discovered that the capacity of the DVD-ROM could be
doubled to 8.5 GB by using two layers of recordable dye. The laser can then focus
on one layer at a time. All of the DVD drives discussed will be either internal
(PATA / SATA) or external.

Blu-ray

Blu-ray (BD) technology is the
highest capacity consumer grade optical technology currently available. Blu-ray
uses a blue laser that has a shorter wavelength than the previous technologies,
allowing for higher density data storage. A Blu-ray disc has a capacity of 25
GB for a single layer disc and 50 GB for a dual layer disc. This dramatic
capacity increase allowed movie studios to distribute content that wouldn’t otherwise
fit on a DVD. Enhancements such as HD and 3D fit comfortably on a Blu-ray disc with
room for alternate formats and additional features.

BD-R

BD-R is the 25 GB Blu-ray write
once recordable disc. Blu-ray recordable discs use the same speed rating
identifiers that were used on CD and DVD technology. For example, a 1x BD-R
writes at roughly 36 Mbps and a 2x at 72 Mbps. 2x is considered to be the minimum
acceptable read speed for viewing BD-ROM movies. Considering that it would take
over 90 minutes for a 1x BD-R to write 25 GB of data, the need for speed is
important.

Also consider that your maximum write speed will be determined
by the slowest component: the drive or the media. You may have a 16x BD-R drive
but if your media is rated at 4x, it is unlikely that you will write at any
speed near 16x. Most Blu-ray devices will be backwards compatible to DVD and
CD-ROMs. Considered high end for PCs, the majority of these devices will be
internal and use the SATA 2.0 or higher connection in order to support the high
transfer rates. External BD-R drives are also available. These predominantly use
USB 2.0 and optimally USB 3.0.

BD-RE

BD-RE discs are rewriteable but otherwise,
use the same process as BD-R. This is an advantage even though disc prices are
coming down. The write speeds of BD-RE drives are comparable to that of BD-R
but there is some pre-write overhead that takes time. The BD-RE media must be
completely erased and verified before the write process can begin.

• Solid-state drives

 M2 drives

Solid state drives are highly beneficial in standard form
factors such as 2.5”. These drives can be used to upgrade the performance of
laptops with SATA connections. As consumers wanted smaller and thinner portable
devices, the M2 drive addressed the need by using the PCI Express Mini Card and
SATA compatibility. These drives offered the most storage and fastest speeds
while having a much smaller footprint in the device.

– NVME

Non-Volatile Memory Express (NVMe) evolved from the M2 standard and offered even greater speed. To get the most from an NVMe drive, use it as the boot device in the system. NVMe drives use the PCI Express x4 to provide the fastest performance.

Click here for our A+ Exam Simulator for exams 220-1001 & 220-1002

Magnetic hard disk drives

Magnetic hard disk drives are the primary storage device for
most computers on the market today. Solid state drives are coming down in price,
but you will find the cost per gigabyte is still the best for the magnetic hard
disk. These drives come in two main physical sizes: the 3.5” PC drive and the
2.5“ drive which is better suited to portable devices. Surprisingly, the iPod
Classic 160 GB media player contains a magnetic hard disk.

Inner view of a hard disk drive Seagate
Medalist ST33232A

When selecting a drive, consider the form factor and the
rotational speed of the disks. 2.5” disks are power efficient and compact, helping
reduce the overall size of portables while conserving battery life.

5400 rpm

The 2.5” disk is available with two platter rotation speeds. 5400 RPM drives
use less energy and are quieter, but do not offer the faster data rates that
can be achieved with a 7200 RPM drive.

7200 rpm / 10,000 rpm

The 7200
RPM
 drives on average consume more power.  The speed
difference will be tangible when moving large files or using disk intensive
programs. 3.5” disks are mainly used in desktop units. They are available with
three rotational speeds: 5400 RPM, 7200 RPM, and 10,000 RPM. 10,000
RPM drives are more expensive and less power efficient. When it comes to pure
performance in a magnetic storage device using access speed as the main
criteria, the 10, 000 RPM disk will always win. These are used in servers and
SAS (Serial Attached SCSI) devices. In addition to needing a SCSI controller,
the penalty for this kind of performance is heat, noise, and poor comparative
energy efficiency.

15,000rpm

15,000 rpm hard disks found their niche in SAS applications.
There is some debate as to whether they are cost efficient in terms of
capacity, noise, heat, and power consumption when compared to SSD drives.

Hybrid

Hybrid drives, or SSHD devices, strike the
balance between cost, performance, and capacity. By coupling a nominal amount
of solid state non-volatile memory with a terabyte or two of magnetic storage, the
time it take to boot and access frequently used program files can be decreased.
When presented with the option, your system’s firmware will store this data in
the hybrid or cache portion of storage, making it rapidly accessible when you
reload the program or even reboot since the data on the SSD persists without
power and will be instantly available.

Flash – Be
sure to write protect these devices when using them portably as the risk of
data loss or virus infection is very real. As the technology progressed, so did
the packaging and the capacity. Since they are small and don’t take too much
space, slots for these solid state memory packages were built directly into laptops,
offering safe and efficient portability of data. Yes, this was before the Cloud.
There really is no substitute for having a “hard copy” of your data and these smaller,
more efficient storage mediums continue to proliferate.

Compact Flash and SD

Laptop manufacturers support one or two package types, but not
all. The most convenient solution to this problem of design compatibility was
to create a portable USB memory card reader that would support all types of
memory cards such as the one shown below. If you look closely, you can see
that the multi-card reader will accept SD cards, Compact Flash, Micro-SD, and Mini-SD
storage cards. It’s nice to have one of these handy.

Raid types

This section covers all of the technology
associated with RAID. RAID is shorthand for a Redundant Array of Independent
Disks. This technology allows multiple disks to appear as a single volume. The
disks are capable of creating mirrored images of other drives and maintaining a
consistent backup of a particular disk. Some RAID configurations are very fault
tolerant.

RAID assigns different numeric qualities to each level. There is
Hardware based RAID and Software based RAID. The most prevalent are RAID 0,
RAID 1, RAID 5, and Raid 10. We will explain below what makes them different.
There is another RAID array, called JBOD or Just a Bunch of Disks, that only
requires two or more disks and the data is spanned across them. This array has
no fault tolerance or redundancy. The most prevalent RAID array configurations
are explained below.

RAID 0

RAID 0 uses two or more drives and
is used to increase the size of the volume available. The data on the volume is
treated sequentially and will be written across all drives in the array. There
is no parity. If a drive in the array fails, the volume fails.

RAID 1

RAID 1 also requires two disks to be
paired together. You would think that using identical hardware, combining the
drives would double the volume size. With mirroring this is not the case. In
RAID 1, the second drive is used as a mirror. When you write data to the
mirrored set, you write to both of the drives at the same time and read
requests can be handled by either drive.

RAID 5

RAID 5 arrays are quite special,
especially in the way they store and manage data. The minimum requirement is three
physical disks. In this configuration, there is a performance and fault
tolerance and an increase in speed through the use of parity. When data is written,
it is spread across the available drives except the parity drive. Each disk
will contain both parity and standard data. If a drive fails, there is enough
information to completely rebuild the drives in minutes, not hours that a
backup based restore would take.

Raid 10

RAID 10 is the most recent RAID development and is also known as RAID 1+0. RAID 10 combines RAID 1 and RAID 0. The disk requirement is a minimum of four disks where two drives are mirrored and two drives are striped, making this the most robust storage solution available.

Hot swappable drives

Hot swappable drives provide
storage flexibility for PCs and laptops through an external interface that allows
hard disks to be added or removed without the need to power down the machine.
Originally this was a complex operation, but the introduction of USB and SATA
technologies combine to make this a reasonably safe process. The configuration
can be a single drive or an enclosure that houses multiple drives which can be
swapped in and out as necessary. It is a good idea to check the write caching
status on your drive dock that you intend to swap your drives on. This is
disabled by default but it’s best to turn this on to allow recovery of lost
data. You will find this setting in the Device Manager in the properties of the
device.

That’s all for 3.4! Keep studying and good luck on the test!

Click here if you want to go back to the A+ 220-1001 Table of Content

Click here for our A+ Exam Simulator for exams 220-1001 & 220-1002


Pass Your IT Certification Exams With Free Real Exam Dumps and Questions

Full Version 220-1001 Dumps

Categories
A+ 1001 Study Guide

A plus 220-1001 – Exam Objective 3.3 – Dumps4shared

A plus 220-1001 – Exam Objective 3.3

A+ 220-1001 Exam Objective 3.3

Click here if you want to go back to the A+ 220-1001 Table of Content

Click here for our A+ Exam Simulator for exams 220-1001 & 220-1002

3.3 Given a scenario, install RAM types.

Welcome to Exam Notes by Dumps4shared! In this article, we
will cover Core 1 objective 3.3 Given a scenario, install RAM types.

When you are taking the CompTIA A+ Hardware exam 220-1001, you
will need to know the different types of RAM, their characteristics, and which types
are preferable for high-performance workstations and servers.

What is DDR RAM?

DDR stands for Double Data Rate and it is the standard RAM used
in the majority of PCs today. There are a few different versions of DDR RAM:

  • DDR,
    which first appeared around 2000.
  • DDR2,
    which doubled the performance of DDR, while using less power.
  • DDR3,
    which doubled the performance of DDR2 while using even less power.
  • DDR4,
    which offers higher clock speeds along with lower latency and power
    consumption.

The type of motherboard being used determines the type of RAM that
can be installed. Every DDR version has its own unique notched module shape, preventing
installation of DDR RAM on a motherboard that doesn’t support it.

DIMMs and SODIMMs

DDR RAM comes in two primary physical sizes: DIMMs and SODIMMs.
DIMM stands for Dual In-line Memory Module and SODIMM stands for Small Outline
Dual In-line Memory Module.

View
of a Dual In-line Memory Module or DIMM (click to enlarge)

DIMMS are commonly used in desktop computers and servers while
SODIMMS are used in laptop computers.

Exam Tip: Remember
this fact by using the mnemonic DIMMs for Desktops (D for D).

SODIMM (click to enlarge)

SODIMM in its laptop memory socket (click to enlarge)

RAM Channels

RAM channels refer to the level of communication between RAM
modules and the system’s memory controller. The greater the number of channels,
the more RAM modules the memory controller can access.

Most standard PCs are dual-channel compatible, meaning the
motherboard has at least two RAM sockets. Two identical RAM modules must be installed
for dual-channel functionality to work.

Triple-channel motherboards have at least three RAM sockets (or
a multiple of three) and require certain models of CPU such as the Intel Core
i7 or Xeon processor. There are also quad-channel motherboards with four RAM
sockets (or a multiple of four). Triple and quad-channel RAM systems are much
more expensive to build and are commonly reserved for very high-performance
servers and workstations.

Parity vs.
Non-Parity

Older versions of RAM were available in parity and non-parity
types. Parity RAM has the ability to detect memory-based data errors (but does
not correct them) while non-parity RAM does not have this function.

Parity RAM was made largely obsolete by ECC RAM.

ECC RAM

Error-Correcting Code (ECC) RAM can both detect and correct
memory-based data errors. ECC RAM is commonly used in critical servers where
data corruption cannot be tolerated. ECC RAM is more expensive and requires
ECC-supporting motherboards and processors which are more expensive as well.

There you have it. You are now a RAM expert! Time to move on to objective 3.4!

Click here if you want to go back to the A+ 220-1001 Table of Content

Click here for our A+ Exam Simulator for exams 220-1001 & 220-1002

Pass Your IT Certification Exams With Free Real Exam Dumps and Questions

Full Version 220-1001 Dumps

Categories
A+ 1001 Study Guide

A plus 220-1001 – Exam Objective 3.2 – Dumps4shared

A plus 220-1001 – Exam Objective 3.2

A+ Exam Objective 3.2

3.2 Identify common connector types.

Welcome to Exam Notes by Dumps4shared! In this article, we will cover Core 1 objective 3.2 Identify common connector types.

Click here if you want to go back to the A+ 220-1001 Table of Content.

Click here for our A+ Exam Simulator for exams 220-1001 & 220-1002

Twisted Pair Connectors and Ethernet Wiring

Now we’ll look at the copper network cable types. Once the most
exhaustive connection method you would need to know for A+, the 802.3 series of
cables are now being replaced by Fiber and Wireless. Nevertheless, copper
network cables are still heavily used in the field with many networks running
RJ-45 and wireless networks covering the same areas. Here we will look at the
two main twisted pair implementations, RJ-11 and RJ-45. Here is how the
connectors compare.

RJ-11 This connector supported the early
10BASE-T networks and Voice Grade telephone connections with 6-pin capability.
While still used in telephone implementations, RJ-11 has been surpassed in
networking by RJ-45which will be described later. RJ-11 supports speeds of 10Mbps,
which is adequate for voice, but highly inefficient for networking which can
attain speeds of 1000Mbps.

RJ-45 This connector succeeded RJ-11
for network use. RJ-45 uses four twisted pairs of wire configured to reduce
cross-talk and other cable related problems. In its initial configuration, RJ-45
was capable of matching RJ-11 speeds, 10Mbps, which was the standard for the
time. Keep in mind how the RJ-45 connectors are wired. There are two dominant
wiring pinouts: T-568A and T-568B.

T – 568 A & B detail

Changes in network hardware made it possible for this connector
to reach speeds of 100Mbps. As the technology has advanced, even greater speeds
can be attained by making enhancements to the internal configuration of the
connector and the cable while leaving the original shape and size of the
connector unchanged.

Coaxial

Another network cable option is Thinnet or the RG-58 variant.

RG-58 Coaxial

This 10BASE2 connector and cable were harder to manage than its
10BASET cousin. It used BNC connectors and a somewhat less manageable shielded
copper core cable. RG-58 matched the 10Mbps speed and had a longer range, but
it was difficult to implement the required bus topology and required a T
connection at each host, along with termination at the cable ends, to prevent
signal reflection.

F- Connector

Your objectives call for knowledge of the F-Type connector. This
connector is not as much a network connector as it is a video connector. Your
Home Media Center PC will require this connector in order to connect your cable
or antenna system to it.

F Type

An RG-6 cable uses an F-type connector. It is similar to BNC, however
the F connector screws onto the component, creating a connection where a
failure point will most likely be the cable itself rather than at the
connection point. The connection is strong and extremely unlikely to pull out.

RS-232 / DB-9

The RS-232 cable is used for serial communications. It has a
9-pin configuration and supports PC to router/switch connections over a null
modem cable. Similar legacy serial connectors can support peripherals such as the
mouse.

RS-232 connector

Click here for our A+ Exam Simulator for exams 220-1001 & 220-1002

USB Cable End Details

When looking at the cable ends presented above, the most
significant features would be what you’d expect: shape, color, and size. Changes
began with USB 2.0 where the need for a standard connector for portable devices
such as smartphones was apparent. Before this modification, each manufacturer
had to design their own ”B” end of the cable because the standard connector was
 twice the size of the device! Eventually, the USB 2.0 mini connector and
the USB 2.0 micro connector (see table above) was designed to solve this issue.

Evolution of the USB Connector

During the development and enhancement of FireWire[, development speeds reached 800Mbps! We found ourselves in the position where market domination was inevitable but it didn’t happen. What went wrong?

There were two developments that hindered FireWire adoption. The
first, not too surprisingly, was greed. Apple was preparing to impose a $1 per
port royalty on FireWire connections. They eventually opted not to impose the
charge but it was too late as it had left a bitter taste with the consumers.
Second, there was a generation of FireWire only iPods. These new devices would
only accept Fire Wire connections. Customers seeking only to upgrade their
music player were forced to upgrade their computer to FireWire as well! Hmmmmm.
This is not one of the major points but it certainly bears some scrutiny.

When FireWire 800 was developed, there was no consideration for
backwards compatibility. In contrast when USB upgraded from 1.1 to 2.0, compatible
connectors were used. For the end user, this greatly simplified their migration
to the new technology.

With the introduction of the USB-C connector, one of the main
user complaints about the USB mini and micro connectors was solved. The shape of
mini and micro USB connectors had a top and a bottom and as a result, these
connectors could only be inserted one way. USB-C connectors are reversible, having
upper and lower contacts, and can be inserted easily without a struggle. USB-C supports
the USB 3.0 and USB 3.1 standards. However, USB-C is not backwards compatible.

USB-C connector

Apple’s proprietary Lightning cable shares the same
reversible properties as the USB-C connector. We can see the port on the device
has upper and lower connectors.

Lightning cable and
connector

SCSI

Next, we see a DB-25 external SCSI connector. This connector
supports parallel communication between peripherals and also for RS-232
connections. This cable and connector can be distinguished by the opposite
cable end. A printer will use a Centronics connector on one end and a DB-25 on
the other.

External SCSI DB-25 connector by Smial: https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=1009571

• eSATA

Because of its
flexibility, the SATA interface can connect externally to the machine using an
eSATA port. In the table, you can see the internal SATA Data and power
connectors. Many SATA devices ship with a MOLEX-to-SATA adapter cable for
power. eSATA connects external devices. You can distinguish the SATA from eSATA
by noting the L shaped SATA connector. The eSATA connector has a straight
rectangular interface and an external rib on each side of the plug. This
feature prevents improper insertion.

SATA and eSATA connectors (Image Smial CC by-SA 2.0 de (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0/de/deed.en)

Molex-to-SATA Power

Below, you can see a typical Molex-to-SATA power connector.
The white Molex connector supplies power for two SATA devices.

Molex-to-SATA power
connector

 That’s all for Objective 3.2! Good luck on the test.

Click here if you want to go back to the A+ 220-1001 Table of Content

Click here for our A+ Exam Simulator for exams 220-1001 & 220-1002


Pass Your IT Certification Exams With Free Real Exam Dumps and Questions

Full Version 220-1001 Dumps